CSS multi-language support
Chiuhua Chen, senior front end developer and prototyping expert at Perficient XD, is currently working on a web application that has a visual design supporting only english language. As with every other project, the business later on proposed support for multi-language support. When the application is in another language, spanish or Chinese, due to design constraints, the page appears messed up with some text occupying more width than what is actually allocated. On further research and checking with other peers, Chiu is working on implementing language specific stylesheet which would override the generic css file to take care of this issue. Lead front end developer Jacob Schulke has a few good points on the topic and has already shared his thoughts here. To learn more on how Chiu is tackling the multi-language css support issue, get in touch with her here.
Apache Virtual Hosts
Derek Montgomery, senior front end developer at Perficient XD, with a strong penchant for infrastructure setup and command line coding, is currently working on setting up a new virtual host for Perficient XD and doing further research on the topic, agrees that “If you have made a website, you have probably used Apache. One widely used application of virtual hosts is shared web hosting, whose prices are lower than a dedicated web server because many customers can be hosted on a single server”. He points out virtual hosts can potentially solve problems such as -
I was talking to a colleague a number of weeks ago and the topic came up of where mobile was headed now that smartphones/tablets have become “commonplace”. The three areas that seem to get a considerable degree of focus is wearables (whose hype will be even further boosted if Apple releases the rumored iWatch on September 9th), Google Glass, and Bluetooth Low Energy (the catchier-named “iBeacon” to you iOS types). As a mobile architect, trying to keep up with all the things going on with mobile, I try to keep the deluge from being overwhelming by focusing on those mobile technologies that have enterprise applicability and that clients may come to Perficient seeking expertise. Therefore, I told my colleague that I had dismissed both Google Glass and wearables as more consumer-focused and that my focus was on the possibilities of iBeacons in the enterprise.
However, after a number of subsequent conversations with other mobile architects and articles such as “Salesforce.com sees wearables catching on with customers, partners” has caused me to rethink my position. While I am not confident in Gartner’s claim that by 2017, wearable devices will drive 50 percent of total app interactions, I do believe there is a place where having access to data on your wrist (rather than digging into your pocket for your cell phone or having to have a tablet in one hand) or a headset will have advantages to various classes of enterprise users such as those who require hands-free access such as industrial (warehouse, transportation, etc.), healthcare or in the case of one enterprising firm, replacing access key cards with a wearable.
The challenge for mobile architects and enterprise IT in general is to understand how wearables could provide an advantage to the business (by actually going out and observing how warehouse workers may be using ruggedized tablets now rather than clipboards or rolling computer kiosks and how a wearable could provide an even more productive work environment) by starting to take a look at this technology. This means short R&D initiatives with minimal investments in both hardware and developer time (taking fail-fast to a new level) and developers open to new approaches in terms of screen size, data input, even further optimization of enterprise data access over what is needed for smartphones and processors/memory. In addition, after the issues that firms have had with BYOD in relation to security and mobile device management, determine if wearables create issues that smartphone access to the enterprise did not already expose. If so, better to address it now rather now in an R&D mode rather than later, when you are creating a true business application. The final issue of course is to determine which platforms will break out with many new watches (Apple iWatch, Moto 360, Samsung Gear ) being released and all of which are jockeying for position.
A mobile application has very little function without data to work with and enterprise business mobile applications, even more so. This has given rise to the visibility of application programming interfaces or APIs within the enterprise. Businesses are using APIs to allow visibility to certain business data to business partners outside the company. This concept is nothing new, businesses have been sharing data through Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and Value-Added Networks (VANS) since the 1980s. However, in the last two years, the spotlight has again shown on APIs as the linchpin to support mobile development.
One facet of creating APIs to support mobile development is Microservices which are small, single-purpose, server applications and that can be composed together to form other server applications. The idea is that a microservice does one thing well and executes as a standalone application within a server container (which is one of the differentiators between microservices and their larger SOA brethren). A number of IT technologists have equated microservices with the idea of Unix shell pipeline apps in that they share characteristics such as “small”, independently deployed in their own container, may communicate with each other and are loosely-coupled. James Lewis and Martin Fowler of Thoughtworks published an excellent paper that covers Microservices 101:
In short, the microservice architectural style is an approach to developing a single application as a suite of small services, each running in its own process and communicating with lightweight mechanisms, often an HTTP resource API.
You can say that the above statement could also fit SOA but Lewis/Martin call out how microservices are different enough to stand as its own architecture.
One of the reasons that microservices is a popular choice for mobile development is that each service can start out small, the developer can work both sides of the effort, creating both the mobile app and the service to support it, iterating the services to meet the needs of the mobile app and simply deploy the changed service without coordinating with other developers or the service development team.
This leads into the second trend besides mobile development that has pushed Microservices to the forefront which is the shift to DevOps and Continuous Delivery as another key enabler. The reason for this is that microservices support the need for quicker, independent development (no teams), easy rollback, developer-owned (no handoff to the service support team, it follows more of the “you built it, you support it”), and frequent releases.
Microservice allows an easy and flexible way to integrate automatic deployment with Continuous Integration tools familiar to developers such as Jenkins. That is not to say that microservices provide some type of free-lunch; once the size, number and complexity of the services move out of infancy, a number of issues need to be addressed including operational overhead, a higher level of DevOps skills and the complication of managing a large number of services, many of which perform some level of service inter-communication.
SOA has been around for quite a while and it is difficult to remember when it was the new kid on the block. For the most part, service development around REST and the JSON data interchange format has taken hold and microservices has made it easier for the mobile developer to easily and quickly build/deploy the services needed to support a mobile application.
Imagine being an executive for one of the largest pizza chains in the world and being invited to a meeting titled “Why Two Pizzas Are Enough”. How would you react? Would you be concerned a few zeroes had been left off? I did a contract role as an agile coach for just such a major pizza chain a few years ago. When it was time to give the executive management team an overview of Agile and Scrum (the specific methodology the company was interested in implementing) I was advised to not call the meeting Agile or Scrum. After asking why I should avoid this I was told that the business was sick and tired of hearing about both Agile and Scrum and they wouldn’t come if they knew what it was about. I used the analogy of two pizza teams to grab their attention and boy did I grab their attention! Every Executive attended the meeting.
In last week’s article “Agile and UX Design: Can they work together?” I mentioned the concept of a two pizza team. In this article I give more definition behind this concept and how it applies to agile approaches.
The two Pizza team terminology was coined by Jeff Bezos, founder and CEO of Amazon. You can read more about his concept and how it has become part of the culture at Amazon by reading the Fast Company article “Inside the Mind of Jeff Bezos”.
What is the two pizza team analogy? In Scrum, and most Agile methodologies, the team is meant to be a small, cross-functional, empowered team of approximately 5 – 9 people, depending on the project size. Therefore when your team has to work through lunch or late into the evening, as you know you do when you work on a project, the company can feed the team with two pizzas. I.e. Two pizza teams.
There is more accountability in smaller teams and they tend to avoid the issue of social loafing. According to social psychology, social loafing is the phenomenon where individuals tend to put forth less effort when working in a group than when they are working individually or coactively. Small teams in which each member is accountable for specific tasks for the project will avoid this concern and hold each other accountable on a daily basis for the work being produced.
There is, on occasion, a concern raised with the small number of team members when a project may be extremely large and require more than the recommended 5 – 9 person team. In this event, review the project goals and determine a team structure in which multiple Scrum (or whichever agile methodology is being used) can be structured reporting into one Project Manager or Product Owner (whichever role title your project is using). In many projects a quick review of the goals or epics will show a natural delineation into individual teams. These teams should be able to communicate with each other, but limit the communication paths necessary between the teams. In other words, if team A is unable to complete their work because they must first coordinate with additional teams the project will stall. Minimizing communication overhead while still encouraging communication between teams is a key strategy to the success of multiple teams within the same project.
Try the two pizza team concept when your organization on a smaller scale first. Something as simple as a meeting in which a decision or consensus needs to be reached or if there is a larger problem which you are attempting to solve, break it into smaller chunks and assign a small team to each chunk to solve. See how quickly and effectively these small teams can work. Not only will your problem get resolved, your corporate lunch bill will go down.
In the past few weeks, I’ve seen no less than five different companies publish an article documenting their internal CSS frameworks; it’s a fascinating pattern. Getting an inside look at how other people (or companies) are organizing code and what tools they are using is a pretty fantastic way to become a better developer yourself. Take a look quick look.
The benefits of having a defined development process are plenty: streamlining your workflow, code reusability, greatly decreasing the amount of time it takes to ramp-up new developers; the list goes on.
What are some of the things you or your company does to organize the structure of your code?
Diet pills and Agile have a commonality – people want a quick fix to lose weight only slightly more than they want a fix to all their project management issues. Unfortunately, diet pills nor agile are silver bullets to correct either concern. It takes dedication, work and an understanding of the principles behind the body’s metabolism to lose weight. Likewise, it takes dedication, work and an understanding of the principles behind agile to improve delivery of a project. Once you understand these principles you can become a two pizza team, improve project delivery and lose weight at the same time.
This is the first part of an ongoing series attempting to not only bring clarity to what it means to be agile, but also to answer the question, can agile methodologies work during the UX design phase of a project? I have heard arguments on both sides of that debate. Many designers saying ‘no’ it doesn’t work and the more traditional waterfall methodology works best. Why? Because you have to business requirements before you can start wireframes and you have to have wireframes before you can start creative design. Before starting creative you have to have a content strategy which depends on the wireframes, which depends on the business requirements and on and on. While I am not arguing these needs I want to explore the possibility of providing these needs within an agile process.
But, before the exploration of this feasibility can begin let’s first define what agile means. I hear the word tossed about to describe a single methodology of project management or software development. Ask a project team what methodology they are following and often you hear “we are using agile”. What does that mean? Each week we change our process because we didn’t like what we did last week? Or, the client wants us to change how we are doing things because they didn’t like what we did last week? That isn’t agile, that’s chaotic and reactive. So, what is agile?
It’s difficult to define as agile is an umbrella term for multiple approaches to project management of software development projects. At the core, agile is a group of methods that enable small, cross-functional teams to quickly deliver business value in an iterative, collaborative approach. Where change is expected, not feared and where requirements can be expanded upon as the team learns more. Where conversation and collaboration are valued over strict adherence to a set plan defined before the requirements are even made clear to the customer, let alone the team.
The agile manifesto describes the values and principles of agile software development practices and I won’t take the time to reiterate them here, but if you don’t know them I suggest checking out that link. The manifesto itself is made up of four key values supported by twelve principles.
Some agile methods which exhibit these values and principles are:
• Scrum – arguably the most popular
• XP (Extreme Programming)
• Lean Software Development
• Feature Driven Development
• DSDM (Dynamic Systems Development Method)
This is not an exhaustive list of all agile methodologies, but some of the more popular ones currently in use. Which of the approaches to use depends on the team’s knowledge and expertise in each methodology, their culture and sometimes the project goals.
Making a move to agile is a cultural change that impacts the entire organization, not just the IT department. It’s a marathon, not a sprint. An evolution not a revolution. There is compelling evidence that iterative methods reduce project risk, compared to more traditional waterfall approaches. Next time we’ll move into the discussion of bringing Agile and UX together.
In the meantime, have you been involved in a cultural shift to using agile? What pain points did you find and how did you resolve them?
Microsoft published an article on their Internet Explorer blog yesterday that discussed their plans for supporting older versions of IE, and the web development community has been blowing up ever since. I have seen many eager Interneters making loud claims to the tune of, “IE8 is dead! We no longer have to support older versions of IE!” However, it’s very easy to get caught up in the pandemonium or start bandwagon-ing and miss the actual facts of what is and will be happening according to Microsoft. I want to clarify some things and set the record straight before we all hang up our Windows XP virtual machines. Read the rest of this post »
For a long time now, User Experience professionals have been working in a world of abstracted layers. This is best illustrated by Jesse James Garret’s famous 2010 diagram of the Elements of User Experience. Even when the web was simply made up of two layers, structure and style, designers used these abstracted layers to map out the overall structure, information design, behavioral touchpoints, and visual design elements of a given solution. As the web matured and additional technical layers were added, such as behavior, content, and contextual awareness, these layers became more important for us to work through and support. Modern digital solutions, such as Disney’s My Disney Experience, Airbnb, Uber, and many many more, are ones built on top of these abstracted layers so that their overall solution is more scalable and maintainable.
Several other benefits manifest themselves as well, including:
Ultimately why does having an abstracted UI layer matter though? Because there is no such thing as just having a website or just having an app anymore. It’s about providing a digital service that people can interact with, play with, and enjoy at any time from any device. Many things go into ensuring that the resulting experience is a pleasing one, but taking the time to build a UI layer that isn’t, at least fully, dependent on a backend platform is one of the key methods for properly serving people who use your digital solution.
As a designer, its easy to fall into patterns that conform to established models. But to truly innovate, you must bring a fresh perspective to every design challenge. I was recently reminded of the value of a fresh perspective, when my 7 year old daughter took on the challenge of making a computer for her American Girl Doll. Because we all know that any self-respecting doll, has gotta be connected.
However, this was not an ordinary computer. It was a Mac, which was already enough to make me proud. But it was also customized to her doll’s very specific needs. First of all, it was purple, which is the doll’s favorite color, it was also sized perfectly so that it could fit into her purse and it even had a rear facing camera to take pictures of the other dolls while she was on “Facebook.” But what amazed me the most was the keyboard layout. Yes it included most of the typical numbers and letters that you’d find on a keyboard. However this keyboard was also personalized. It had special keys for her email address, zip code, and Facebook username “in case she got tired of typing.” This really made me realize how much I hate typing in my email address all the time, especially on mobile devices. Wouldn’t it be great if I could have a single key that take care of that for me? Yes, I know most web browsers retain email inputs to support an autofill function, however mobile browsers typically don’t support that capability as well. And in mobile interactions, that capability would have most value.
In designing her computer, my daughter never considered the limitations that come with a standardized physical keyboard. In her mind, a computer should be customized to meet the needs of the user. And in today’s world of virtual keyboards and personalization features, there is the opportunity to make that reality. It might even change the way we think about our personal devices. So in your next project, try injecting a fresh perspective and you may be surprised with the results.
The latest version of Adobe Cordova was released today (v. 3.5) and perusing through the release notes, I saw that they had dropped support for iOS 5, leaving only one major previous release (iOS 6) and the current release. In the past, Android developers have been plagued by the slow release of new versions of the Android SDK to existing Android phones. It has only been in the past year or so that a significant number of developers have moved off supporting 2.3.3 (Gingerbread) and below, making the lowest version number supported being 4.0.3. The question for Android developers is: how aggressively can they move off of 4.0.3 to the next major release, 4.1?
Taking a quick check of the Android smartphones available through the various carriers, none of the phones are lower than 4.1 but a number are at 4.1 (example, the LG Enact and Motorola Droid RAZR M) so, unlike Apple, we as developers cannot move back to only 4.2 and eliminate phones that are still being sold by the major carriers. In all likelihood, the 4.0.3 phones are those who are waiting for their 2-year contract to come up, knowing that the phone will be not be updated by the carrier or OEM. Dropping 2.3.3 loses a developer about 16% of the market but gains in terms of lower bug count (quite a few issues are performance related, trying to use a modern mobile app on older hardware) and a wider selection of third-party tools (which have abandoned 2.3.3 and many are 4.1 and above).
The key issue is supporting 4.0.3 and its 13.4% share. The developer has to determine how resource-intensive the app is and what is the risk of users trying to run it on 4.0.3 (which are also resource-limited) and the subsequent crashes due to memory errors. It is difficult to justify to management a proposal that shuts out almost 30% (2.3.3’s 16.2% and 4.0.3’s 13.4%) of a customer base but the bigger question is: does it make business sense to support a project when the funds required exceeds the return of investment and the risk of poor acceptance in the marketplace when the app’s performance requirements exceeds the user’s hardware at the low end of the curve?
One other consideration I failed to mention is usage by the international market. If the mobile app is targeted outside of the United States/Canada, many lower-end Android phones (white-box, introductory) sold in India, China and Africa are still using 2.3.3/Gingerbread. In the case of tablets, even the low-end 8 GB/under a $100.00 models are supporting Android 4.1 and above (source: Walmart.com).